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Majjhima Nikaya

Majjhima Nikāya
10 Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta
Discourse on the Establishments of Mindfulness

A complete set of instructions for practicing mindfulness meditation.

Uddeso: Introduction

Evaṁ me sutaṁ: Ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā kurūsu viharati, kammāssadammaṁ nāma kurūnaṁ nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi, bhikkhavo’ti. Bhadante’ti te bhikkhu bhagavato paccassosuṁ. Bhagavā etadavoca:

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living in the Kuru country, in the town of Kammāssadamma of Kuru people. There the Blessed One addressed the monks saying, “Monks.” “Bhante,” the monks replied to the Blessed One. Then the Blessed One said this:

Ekāyano ayaṁ bhikkhave maggo, sattānaṁ visuddhiyā, sokapariddavānaṁ samatikkamāya, dukkhadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya, nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya. Yadidaṁ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā. Katame cattāro?

“Monks, this is the one and only path for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the disappearance of pain and grief, for the attainment of the higher knowledge, and for the realization of Nibbāna, namely, the four establishments of mindfulness. What are the four?

Idha bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ātāpī, sampajāno, satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ.

“Here, monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body, dedicated, fully aware, and mindful, having put away greed and grief for the world.

Vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati, ātāpī, sampajāno, satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā domanassaṁ.

“He dwells contemplating the feelings in feelings, dedicated, fully aware, and mindful, having put away greed and grief for the world.

Citte cittānupassī viharati, ātāpī, sampajāno, satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā domanassaṁ.

“He dwells contemplating the mind in mind, dedicated, fully aware, and mindful, having put away greed and grief for the world.

Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, ātāpī, sampajāno, satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā domanassaṁ.

“He dwells contemplating the phenomena in phenomena, dedicated, fully aware, and mindful, having put away greed and grief for the world.

1. Kāyānupassanā: The Observation of Body

1.1 Ānāpāna Pabbaṁ: Section on Breathing

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati?

“How, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating the body in body?

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu araññagato vā rukkhamūlagato vā suññāgāragato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṁ ābhujitvā, ujuṁ kāyaṁ paṇidhāya parimukhaṁ satiṁ upaṭṭhapetvā. So sato’va assasati, sato’va passasati. Dīghaṁ vā assasanto, dighaṁ assasāmīti pajānāti. Dīghaṁ vā passasanto, dīghaṁ passasāmīti pajānāti. Rassaṁ vā assasanto, rassaṁ assasāmīti pajānāti. Rassaṁ vā passasanto, rassaṁ passasāmīti pajānāti.

“Here, monks, a monk, gone to the forest or to the foot of a tree or to a secluded place, sits down folding his legs crosswise, holding his body straight, and setting mindfulness on the meditation object. Mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out. When breathing in a long breath, he knows: ‘I am breathing in a long breath.’ When breathing out a long breath, he knows: ‘I am breathing out a long breath.’ When breathing in a short breath, he knows: ‘I am breathing in a short breath.’ When breathing out a short breath, he knows: ‘I am breathing out a short breath.’

Sabbakāya paṭisaṁvedī assasissāmīti sikkhati, sabbakāya paṭisaṁvedī passasissāmīti sikkhati. Passambhayaṁ kāya saṅkhāraṁ assasissāmīti sikkhati, passambhayaṁ kāya saṅkhāraṁ passasissāmīti sikkhati.

“‘Conscious of the entire breathing process, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself. ‘Conscious of the entire breathing process, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself. ‘Calming the entire breathing process, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself. ‘Calming the entire breathing process, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho bhamakāro vā bhamakārantevāsī vā dīghaṁ vā añchanto, dīghaṁ añchāmīti pajānāti. Rassaṁ vā añchanto, rassaṁ añchāmīti pajānāti.

“Just as monks, a skilled turner or his apprentice, when making a long turn, understands, ‘I am making a long turn,’ or when making a short turn understands, ‘I am making a short turn.’

Evameva kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu dīghaṁ vā assasanto, dīghaṁ assasāmīti pajānāti. Dīghaṁ vā passasanto dīghaṁ passasāmīti pajānāti. Rassaṁ vā assasanto rassaṁ assasāmīti pajānāti. Rassaṁ vā passasanto rassaṁ passasāmīti pajānāti.

“In the same way monks, when breathing in a long breath, the monk knows: ‘I am breathing in a long breath.’ When breathing out a long breath, he knows: ‘I am breathing out a long breath.’ When breathing in a short breath, he knows: ‘I am breathing in a short breath.’ When breathing out a short breath, he knows: ‘I am breathing out a short breath.’

Sabbakāya paṭisaṁvedī assasissāmīti sikkhati. Sabbakāya paṭisaṁvedī passasissāmīti sikkhati. Passambhayaṁ kāyasaṅkhāraṁ assasissāmīti sikkhati, passambhayaṁ kāyasaṅkhāraṁ passasissāmīti sikkhati.

“‘Conscious of the entire breathing process, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself. ‘Conscious of the entire breathing process, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself. ‘Calming the entire breathing process, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself. ‘Calming the entire breathing process, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.2. Iriyāpatha Pabbaṁ: Section on Postures

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave bhikkhu gacchanto vā gacchāmīti pajānāti. Ṭhito vā ṭhitomhīti pajānāti. Nisinno vā nisinnomhīti pajānāti. Sayāno vā sayānomhī ti pajānāti. Yathā yathā vā panasasa kāyo paṇihito hoti. Tathā tathā naṁ pajānāti.

“Again, monks, when walking, a monk understands: ‘I am walking.’ When standing, he understands: ‘I am standing.’ When sitting, he understands: ‘I am sitting.’ When lying down, he understands: ‘I am lying down.’ And he understands accordingly however his body is placed.

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.3 Sampajañña Pabbaṁ: Section on Clear Comprehension

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti. Ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti. Sammiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī hoti. Saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti. Asite pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti. Uccārapassāvakamme sampajānakārī hoti. Gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī hoti.

“Again, monks, a monk is fully alert when going forward and returning, when looking ahead and looking away, when bending and stretching his limbs, when wearing his robes, and carrying his outer robe and bowl. He is fully alert when eating, drinking, consuming food, and tasting. He is fully alert when defecating and urinating. He is fully alert when walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, and keeping silent.

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.4 Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabbaṁ: Section on Repulsiveness

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave bhikkhu imameva kāyaṁ uddhaṁ pādatalā adho kesamatthakā taca pariyantaṁ pūraṁ nānappakārassa asucino paccavekkhati. “Atthi imasmiṁ kāye, kesā, lomā, nakhā, dantā, taco, maṁsaṁ, nahāru, aṭṭhi, aṭṭhi miñjaṁ, vakkaṁ, hadayaṁ, yakanaṁ, kilomakaṁ, pihakaṁ, papphāsaṁ, antaṁ, antaguṇaṁ, udariyaṁ, karīsaṁ, matthaluṁgaṁ pittaṁ, semhaṁ, pubbo, lohitaṁ, sedo, medo, assu, vasā, kheḷo, siṁghāṇikā, lasikā, muttanti.”

“Again, monks, a monk considers this body upwards from the soles of the feet, and downwards from the tips of the hairs, enclosed in skin, as full of many kinds of impurities: ‘In this body there are head hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, blood vessels, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, brain, heart, liver, gall bladder, spleen, lungs, small intestine, large intestine, stomach, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, skin oil, saliva, mucus, fluid in the joints, and urine.’

“Seyyathāpi bhikkhave ubhato mukhā muṭoḷi pūrā nānāvihitassa dhaññassa, seyyathīdaṁ, sālīnaṁ, vihīnaṁ, muggānaṁ, māsānaṁ, tilānaṁ, taṇḍulānaṁ. Tamenaṁ cakkhumā puriso muñcitvā paccavekkheyya: “ime sālī, ime vīhī, ime muggā, ime māsā, ime tilā, ime taṇḍulā’ti.

“Just as though there were a bag with an opening at both ends full of many sorts of grain, such as hill rice, red rice, beans, peas, millet, and white rice, and a man with good eyes were to open it and review it thus: ‘This is hill rice, this is red rice, these are beans, these are peas, this is millet, and this is white rice.’

Evameva kho bhikkhave bhikkhu imameva kāyaṁ uddhaṁ pādatalā adho kesamatthakā taca pariyantaṁ pūraṁ nānappakārassa asucino paccavekkhati: atthi imasmiṁ kāye kesā, lomā, nakhā, dantā, taco, maṁsaṁ, nahāru, aṭṭhi, aṭṭhimiñjaṁ, vakkaṁ, hadayaṁ, yakanaṁ, kilomakaṁ, pihakaṁ, papphāsaṁ, antaṁ, antaguṇaṁ, udariyaṁ, karīsaṁ, matthaluṁgaṁ pittaṁ, semhaṁ, pubbo, lohitaṁ, sedo, medo, assu, vasā, kheḷo, siṅghānikā, lasikā, muttanti.”

In the same way , monks, a monk considers this body upwards from the soles of the feet, and downwards from the tips of the hairs, enclosed in skin, as full of many kinds of impurities: ‘There are in this body head hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, blood vessels, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, brain, heart, liver, gall bladder, spleen, lungs, small intestine, large intestine, stomach, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, skin oil, saliva, mucus, fluid in the joints, and urine.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.5 Dhātumanasikāra Pabbaṁ: Reflections on the Elements

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṁ yathā ṭhitaṁ yathā paṇihitaṁ, dhātuso paccavekkhati: atthi imasmiṁ kāye paṭhavī dhātu, āpo dhātu, tejodhātu, vāyo dhātū ti.

“Again, monks, a monk reflects upon this body, however it is placed, however positioned, as consisting of elements thus: ‘In this body there are the earth element, the water element, the fire element, and the air element.’

Seyyathāpi bhikkhave dakkho goghātako vā goghātakantevāsī vā gāviṁ vadhitvā cātummahāpathe khīlaso pativibhajitvā nisinno assa.

“Just as though a skilled butcher or his apprentice had killed a cow, and was seated at the crossroads with it cut into pieces;

Evameva kho bhikkhave bhikkhu imameva kāyaṁ yathā ṭhitaṁ yathā paṇihitaṁ dhātuso paccavekkhati: atthi imasmiṁ kāye paṭhavī dhātu, āpo dhātu, tejo dhātu, vāyo dhātū ti.

So too, monks, a monk reflects upon this very body, however it is placed, however positioned, as consisting of elements thus: ‘In this body there are the earth element, the water element, the fire element, and the air element.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya, patissatimattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.6 Navasīvathika Pabbaṁ: Nine Charnel-Ground Contemplations

1.6.1 Paṭhamaṁ Sīvathikaṁ: First Charnel-Ground Comtemplations

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṁ sīvathikāya chaḍḍitaṁ ekāhamataṁ vā dvīhamataṁ vā tīhamataṁ vā uddhumātakaṁ, vinīlakaṁ, vipubbakajātaṁ. So imameva kāyaṁ upasaṁharati. Ayampi kho kāyo evaṁ dhammo, evaṁ bhāvī, etaṁ anatīto’ti.

“Again, monks, as though a monk were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, one, two, or three days dead, bloated, blue, and festering, a monk compares this very body with it thus: ‘This body is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating on the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.6.2 Dutiyaṁ Sīvathīkaṁ: Second Charnel-Ground Contemplation

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṁ sivathikāya chaḍḍītaṁ, kākehi vā khajjamānaṁ, kulalehi vā khajjamānaṁ, gijjhehi vā khajjamānaṁ, sunakhehi vā khajjamānaṁ, sigālehi vā khajjamānaṁ, vividhehi vā pāṇaka jātehi khajjamānaṁ, so imameva kāyaṁ upasaṁharati. Ayampi kho kāyo evaṁ dhammo, evaṁ bhāvī, etaṁ anatītoti.

“Again, monks, as though a monk were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, being devoured by crows, hawks, vultures, dogs, jackals, or various kinds of creatures, he compares this very body with it thus: ‘This body is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.6.3 Tatiyaṁ Sīvathīkaṁ: Third Charnel-Ground Contemplation

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṁ sīvatikāya chaḍḍitaṁ, aṭṭhisaṅkhalikaṁ, samaṁsalohitaṁ, nahārusambaddhaṁ. So imameva kāyaṁ upasaṁharati. Ayampi kho kāyo evaṁ dhammo, evaṁ bhāvī, etaṁ anatīto’ti.

“Again, monks, as though a monk were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, a skeleton with flesh and blood, held together with blood vessels; he compares this very body with it thus: ‘This body is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.6.4 Catutthaṁ Sīvathīkaṁ: Fourth Charnel-Ground Contemplation

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṁ sīvathikāya chaḍḍītaṁ, aṭṭhi saṅkhalikaṁ, nimmaṁsa lohitamakkhitaṁ, nahāru sambaddhaṁ. So imameva kāyaṁ upasaṁharati. Ayampi kho kāyo evaṁ dhammo, evaṁ bhāvī, etaṁ anatīto’ti.

“Again, monks, as though a monk were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, a fleshless skeleton smeared with blood, held together with blood vessels, he compares this very body with it thus: ‘This body is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.6.5 Pañcamaṁ Sīvathīkaṁ: Fifth Charnel-Ground Contemplation

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṁ sīvathikāya chaḍḍitaṁ, aṭṭhika saṅkhalikaṁ, apagata maṁsalohitaṁ nahāru sambaddhaṁ. So imameva kāyaṁ upasaṁharati. Ayampi kho kāyo evaṁ dhammo, evaṁ bhāvī, etaṁ anatīto’ti.

“Again, monks, as though a monk were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, a skeleton without flesh and blood, held together with blood vessels; he compares this very body with it thus: ‘This body is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.6.6 Chaṭṭhaṁ Sīvathīkaṁ: Sixth Charnel-Ground Contemplation

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṁ sīvathikāya chaḍḍitaṁ aṭṭhikāni apagatasambandhāni disāvidisāsu vikkhittāni aññena hatthaṭṭhikaṁ, aññena pādaṭṭhikaṁ, aññena jaṅghaṭṭhikaṁ, aññena ūraṭṭhikaṁ, aññena piṭṭhiṭṭhikaṁ, aññena kaṭaṭṭhikaṁ, aññena gīvaṭṭhikaṁ, aññena dantaṭṭhikaṁ, aññena sīsakaṭāhaṁ. So imameva kāyaṁ upasaṁharati. Ayampi kho kāyo evaṁ dhammo, evaṁ bhāvī, etaṁ anatīto’ti.

“Again, monks, as though a monk were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, disconnected bones scattered in all directions: here a hand-bone, there a foot-bone, here a shin-bone, there a thigh-bone, here a hip-bone, there a back bone, here a rib-bone, there a pelvis, here a neck-bone, there the teeth and here the skull. He compares this body with it thus: ‘This body is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.6.7 Sattamaṁ Sīvathīkaṁ: Seventh Charnel-Ground Contemplation

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṁ sīvathīkāya chaḍḍitaṁ aṭṭhikāni setāni saṅkhavaṇṇupanibhāni. So imameva kāyaṁ upasaṁharati. Ayampi kho kāyo evaṁ dhammo, evaṁ bhāvī, etaṁ anatīto’ti.

“Again, monks, as though a monk were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, bones bleached white, the colour of shells, he compares this very body with it thus: ‘This body is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.6.8 Aṭṭhamaṁ Sīvathīkaṁ: Eighth Charnel-Ground Contemplation

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṁ sīvathikāya chaḍḍitaṁ, aṭṭhikāni puñjīkatāni terovassikāni. So imameva kāyaṁ upasaṁharati. Ayampi kho kāyo evaṁ dhammo, evaṁ bhāvī, etaṁ anatīto’ti.

“Again, monks, as though a monk were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, bones heaped up, several years old, he compares this very body with it thus: ‘This body is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.6.9 Navamaṁ Sīvathīkaṁ: Ninth Charnel-Ground Contemplation

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṁ sīvathikāya chaḍḍitaṁ, aṭṭhikāni pūtīni, cuṇṇaka jātāni. So imameva kāyaṁ upasaṁharati. Ayampi kho kāyo evaṁ dhammo, evaṁ bhāvī, etaṁ anatīto’ti.

“Again, monks, as though a monk were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, bones rotted away to dust like lime powder, he compares this very body with it thus: ‘This body is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

(The section on contemplating the body in body is finished.)

2. Vedanānupassanā: Contemplation of Feeling

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati?

“And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating feelings in feelings?

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu sukhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyamāno, sukhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyāmī ti pajānāti,

“Here, monks, when feeling a pleasant feeling, a monk understands: ‘I feel a pleasant feeling.’

Dukkhaṁ vā vedanaṁ vediyamāno, dukkhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyāmī ti pajānāti.

“When feeling a painful feeling, he understands: ‘I feel a painful feeling.’

Adukkhamasukhaṁ vā vedanaṁ vediyamāno, adukkhamasukhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyāmī ti pajānāti.

“When feeling a neither painful nor pleasant feeling, he understands: ‘I feel a neither painful nor pleasant feeling.’

Sāmisaṁ vā sukhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyamāno, sāmisaṁ sukhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyāmī ti pajānāti.

“When feeling a pleasant feeling based on the five sense objects; forms, sounds, smells, tastes, and tangibles, he understands it properly: ‘I am feeling a wordly pleasant feeling.’

Nirāmisaṁ vā sukhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyamāno, nirāmisaṁ sukhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyāmī ti pajānāti.

“When feeling a pleasant feeling through his spiritual practice, he understands it properly: ‘I am feeling a spiritual pleasant feeling.’

Sāmisaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyamāno,/sāmisaṁ dukkhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyāmī ti pajānāti.

“When feeling a painful feeling based on the five sense objects; forms, sounds, smells, tastes, and tangibles, he understands it properly: ‘I am feeling a worldly painful feeling.’

Nirāmisaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyamāno, nirāmisaṁ dukkhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyāmī ti pajānāti.

“When feeling a painful feeling based on the lack of spiritual fruits, he understands it properly: ‘I am feeling a spiritual painful feeling.’

Sāmisaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyamāno, sāmisaṁ adukkhamasukhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyāmī ti pajānāti.

“When feeling a neither painful nor pleasant feeling based on the five sense objects; forms, sounds, smells, tastes, and tangibles, he understands it properly: ‘I am feeling a neither painful nor pleasant worldly feeling.’

Nirāmisaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyamāno, nirāmisaṁ adukkhamasukhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyāmī ti pajānāti.

“When feeling a neither painful nor pleasant feeling through his spiritual practice he understands it properly: ‘I am feeling a neither painful nor pleasant spiritual feeling.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati, ajjhatta bahiddhā vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating feelings in feelings within himself, he dwells contemplating feelings in feelings within another, and he dwells contemplating feelings in feelings both within himself and within another.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati, vaya dhammānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati, samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of feelings, he dwells contemplating the passing away of feelings, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of feelings.

Atthi vedanā ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya. Anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a feeling is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati.

“That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating feelings in feelings.

(The section on contemplating feelings in feelings is finished.)

3. Cittānupassanā: Contemplation of Mind

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu citte cittānupassī viharati?

“And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating mind in mind?

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu sarāgaṁ vā cittaṁ, sarāgaṁ cittanti pajānāti.

“Here, monks, a monk understands a mind with lust as a mind with lust.

Vītarāgaṁ vā cittaṁ, vītarāgaṁ cittanti pajānāti.

“He understands a mind without lust as a mind without lust.

Sadosaṁ vā cittaṁ, sadosaṁ cittanti pajānāti.

“He understands a mind with hatred as a mind with hatred.

Vītadosaṁ vā cittaṁ, vītadosaṁ cittanti pajānāti.

“He understands a mind without hatred as a mind without hatred.

Samohaṁ vā cittaṁ, samohaṁ cittanti pajānāti.

“He understands a mind with delusion as a mind with delusion.

Vītamohaṁ vā cittaṁ, vītamohaṁ cittanti pajānāti.

“He understands a mind without delusion as a mind without delusion.

Saṅkhittaṁ vā cittaṁ, saṅkhitta cittanti pajānāti.

“He understands a contracted mind as contracted.

Vikkhittaṁ vā cittaṁ, vikkhittaṁ cittanti pajānāti.

“He understands a distracted mind as distracted.

Mahaggataṁ vā cittaṁ, mahaggataṁ cittanti pajānāti.

“He understands an exalted mind as exalted.

Amahaggataṁ vā cittaṁ, amahaggataṁ cittanti pajānāti.

“He understands an unexalted mind as unexalted.

Sauttaraṁ vā cittaṁ, sauttaraṁ cittanti pajānāti.

“He understands a surpassable mind as surpassable.

Anuttaraṁ vā cittaṁ, anuttaraṁ cittanti pajānāti.

“He understands an unsurpassable mind as unsurpassable.

Samāhitaṁ vā cittaṁ, samāhitaṁ cittanti pajānāti.

“He understands a concentrated mind as concentrated.

Asamāhitaṁ vā cittaṁ, asamāhitaṁ cittanti pajānāti.

“He understands an unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated.

Vimuttaṁ vā cittaṁ, vimuttaṁ cittanti pajānāti.

“He understands a liberated mind as liberated.

Avimuttaṁ vā cittaṁ, avimuttaṁ cittanti pajānāti.

“And he understands an unliberated mind as unliberated.

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā citte cittānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā citte cittānupassī viharati, /ajjhatta bahiddhā vā citte cittānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating mind in mind within himself, he dwells contemplating mind in mind within another, and he dwells contemplating mind in mind both within himself and within another.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā cittasmiṁ viharati, vaya dhammānupassī vā cittasmiṁ viharati samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā cittasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the mind, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the mind, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the mind.

Atthi cittanti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya patissati mattāya. Anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a mind is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu citte cittānupassī viharati.

“That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating mind in mind.

(The section on contemplating mind in mind is finished.)

4. Dhammānupassanā: Contemplation of Phenomena

4.1 Nīvaraṇa Pabbaṁ: Section on the Hindrances

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati?

“And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating phenomena in phenomena?

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassi viharati; pañcasu nīvaraṇesu.

“Here, monks, a monk dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena in terms of the five hindrances.

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati pañcasu nīvaraṇesu?

“And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating phenomena in phenomena in terms of the five hindrances?

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ kāmacchandaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ kāmacchando’ti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ kāmacchandaṁ, ‘natthi me ajjhattaṁ kāmacchando’ti pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa kāmacchandassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa kāmacchandassa pahānaṁ hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca pahīnassa kāmacchandassa āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti tañca pajānāti.

“Here, monks, there being sense desire in him, a monk understands: ‘There is sense desire in me.’ There being no sense desire in him, he understands: ‘There is no sense desire in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of unarisen sense desire, how there comes to be the abandoning of arisen sense desire, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of abandoned sense desire.

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ vyāpādaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ vyāpādo’ti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ vyāpādaṁ, ‘natthi me ajjhattaṁ vyāpādo’ti pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa vyāpādassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa vyāpādassa pahānaṁ hoti tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca pahīnassa vyāpādassa āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“There being ill will in him, a monk understands: ‘There is ill will in me.’ There being no ill will in him, he understands: ‘There is no ill will in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of unarisen ill will, how there comes to be the abandoning of arisen ill will, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of abandoned ill will.

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ thīnamiddhaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ thīnamiddhan’ti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ thīnamiddhaṁ, ‘natthi me ajjhattaṁ thīnamiddhan’ti pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa thīnamiddhassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa thīnamiddhassa pahānaṁ hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca pahīnassa thīnamiddhassa āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“There being dullness and drowsiness in him, a monk understands: ‘There is dullness and drowsiness in me.’ There being no dullness and drowsiness in him, he understands: ‘There is no dullness and drowsiness in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of unarisen dullness and drowsiness, how there comes to be the abandoning of arisen dullness and drowsiness, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of abandoned dullness and drowsiness.

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ uddhacca kukkuccaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ uddhacca kukkuccan’ti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ uddhacca kukkuccaṁ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṁ uddhacca kukkuccanti’ pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa uddhacca kukkuccassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa uddhacca kukkuccassa pahānaṁ hoti, tañca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa uddhacca kukkuccassa āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“There being restlessness and remorse in him, a monk understands: ‘There is restlessness and remorse in me.’ There being no restlessness and remorse in him, he understands: ‘There is no restlessness and remorse in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of unarisen restlessness and remorse, how there comes to be the abandoning of arisen restlessness and remorse, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of abandoned restlessness and remorse.

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ vicikicchaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ vicikicchā’ti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ vicikicchaṁ, ‘natthi me ajjhattaṁ vicikicchā’ti pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannāya vicikicchāya uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannāya vicikicchāya pahānaṁ hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca pahīnāya vicikicchāya āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“There being doubt in him, a monk understands: ‘There is doubt in me.’ There being no doubt in him, he understands: ‘There is no doubt in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of unarisen doubt, how there comes to be the abandoning of arisen doubt, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of abandoned doubt.

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, ajjhatta bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena within himself, he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena within another, and he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena both within himself and within another.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, vaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the phenomena, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the phenomena, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the phenomena.

Atthi dhammāti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya patissati mattāya. Anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is phenomena is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati pañcasu nīvaraṇesu.

“That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the phenomena in phenomena in terms of the five hindrances.

4.2 Khandha Pabbaṁ: Section on the Aggregates

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu. Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu?

“Again monks, a monk dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena in terms of the five aggregates of clinging. And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating phenomena in phenomena in terms of the five aggregates of clinging?

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu, ‘iti rūpaṁ, iti rūpassa samudayo, iti rūpassa atthaṅgamo.

“Here, monks, a monk understands: ‘Such is material form, such its origin, and such its passing away.

Iti vedanā, iti vedanāya samudayo, iti vedanāya atthaṅgamo.

“‘Such is feeling, such its origin, and such its passing away.

Iti saññā, iti saññāya samudayo, iti saññāya atthaṅgamo.

“‘Such is perception, such its origin, and such its passing away.

Iti saṅkhārā, iti saṅkhārānaṁ samudayo, iti saṅkhārānaṁ atthaṅgamo.

“‘Such are volitional formations, such their origin, and such their passing away.

Iti viññāṇaṁ, iti viññāṇassa samudayo, iti viññāṇassa atthaṅgamo’ti.

“‘Such is consciousness, such its origin, and such its passing away.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena within himself, he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena within another, and he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena both within himself and within another.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, vaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the phenomena, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the phenomena, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the phenomena.

Atthi dhammā’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is phenomena is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu.

“That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the phenomena in phenomena in terms of the five aggregates of clinging.

4.3 Āyatana Pabbaṁ: Section on the Sense Bases

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati chasu ajjhattikabāhiresu āyatanesu. Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati chasu ajjhattika bāhiresu āyatanesu?

“Again, monks, a monk dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena in terms of the six internal and external sense bases. And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating phenomena in phenomena in terms of the six internal and external sense bases?

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu cakkhuñca pajānāti. Rūpe ca pajānāti. Yañca tadubhayaṁ paṭicca uppajjati saññojanaṁ tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa saññojanassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa saññojanassa pahānaṁ hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca pahīnassa saññojanassa āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“Here, monks, a monk understands the eye, he understands forms, and he understands the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen fetter, how there comes to be the abandoning of the arisen fetter, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of the abandoned fetter.

Sotañca pajānāti, sadde ca pajānāti. Yañca tadubhayaṁ paṭicca uppajjati saññojanaṁ tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa saññojanassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa saññojanassa pahānaṁ hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca pahīnassa saññojanassa āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“He understands the ear, he understands sounds, and he understands the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen fetter, how there comes to be the abandoning of the arisen fetter, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of the abandoned fetter.

Ghānañca pajānāti. Gandhe ca pajānāti. Yañca tadubhayaṁ paṭicca uppajjati saññojanaṁ tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa saññojanassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa saññojanassa pahānaṁ hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca pahīnassa saññojanassa āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“He understands the nose, he understands odors, and he understands the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen fetter, how there comes to be the abandoning of the arisen fetter, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of the abandoned fetter.

Jivhañca pajānāti, rase ca pajānāti. Yañca tadubhayaṁ paṭicca uppajjati saññojanaṁ tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa saññojanassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa saññojanassa pahānaṁ hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca pahīnassa saññojanassa āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“He understands the tongue, he understands tastes, and he understands the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen fetter, how there comes to be the abandoning of the arisen fetter, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of the abandoned fetter.

Kāyañca pajānāti. Phoṭṭhabbe ca pajānāti. Yañca tadubhayaṁ paṭicca uppajjati saññojanaṁ tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa saññojanassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa saññojanassa pahānaṁ hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca pahīnassa saññojanassa āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“He understands the body, he understands tactile objects, and he understands the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen fetter, how there comes to be the abandoning of the arisen fetter, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of the abandoned fetter.

Manañca pajānāti. Dhamme ca pajānāti. Yañca tadubhayaṁ paṭicca uppajjati saññojanaṁ, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa saññojanassa uppādo hoti, /tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa saññojanassa pahānaṁ hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca pahīnassa saññojanassa āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“He understands the mind, he understands mental objects, and he understands the fetter that arises dependent on both. He also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen fetter, how there comes to be the abandoning of the arisen fetter, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of the abandoned fetter.

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena within himself, he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena within another, and he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena both within himself and within another.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, vaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the phenomena, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the phenomena, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the phenomena.

Atthi dhammāti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya patissati mattāya. Anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there are phenomena is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassi viharati chasu ajjhattika bāhiresu āyatanesu.

“That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the phenomena in phenomena in terms of the six internal and external sense bases.

4.4 Bojjhanga Pabbaṁ: Section on the Factors of Enlightenment

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, sattasu bojjhaṅgesu. Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, sattasu bojjhaṅgesu?

“Again, monks, a monk dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena in terms of the seven enlightenment factors. And how monks, does a monk dwell contemplating phenomena in phenomena in terms of the seven enlightenment factors?

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ sati sambojjhaṅgaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ sati sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ sati sambojjhaṅgaṁ, “natthi me ajjhattaṁ sati sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa sati sambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa sati sambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūri hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“Here, monks, there being the mindfulness enlightenment factor in him, a monk understands: ‘There is the mindfulness enlightenment factor in me.’ There being no mindfulness enlightenment factor in him, he understands: ‘There is no mindfulness enlightenment factor in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen mindfulness enlightenment factor, and how the arisen mindfulness enlightenment factor comes to fulfillment by development.

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅgaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅgaṁ, natthi me ajjhattaṁ dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“There being the investigation of phenomena enlightenment factor in him, a monk understands: ‘There is the investigation of phenomena enlightenment factor in me.’ There being no investigation of phenomena enlightenment factor in him, he understands: ‘There is no investigation of phenomena enlightenment factor in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen investigation of phenomena enlightenment factor, and how the arisen investigation of phenomena enlightenment factor comes to fulfillment by development.

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ viriya sambojjhaṅgaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ viriya sambojjhaṅgo’eti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ viriya sambojjhaṅgaṁ, natthi me ajjhattaṁ viriya sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa viriya sambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa viriya sambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“There being the energy enlightenment factor in him, a monk understands: ‘There is the energy enlightenment factor in me.’ There being no energy enlightenment factor in him, he understands: ‘There is no energy enlightenment factor in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen energy enlightenment factor, and how the arisen energy enlightenment factor comes to fulfillment by development.

Santaṁ vā ajjhattā pīti sambojjhaṅgaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ pīti sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ pīti sambojjhaṅgaṁ, ‘natthi me ajjhattaṁ pīti sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa pīti sambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa pīti sambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“There being the rapture enlightenment factor in him, a monk understands: ‘There is the rapture enlightenment factor in me.’ There being no rapture enlightenment factor in him, he understands: ‘There is no rapture enlightenment factor in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen rapture enlightenment factor, and how the arisen rapture enlightenment factor comes to fulfillment by development.

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ passaddhi sambojjhaṅgaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ passaddhi sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ passaddhi sambojjhaṅgaṁ, ‘natthi me ajjhattaṁ passaddhi sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa passaddhi sambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa passaddhi sambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“There being the tranquility enlightenment factor in him, a monk understands: ‘There is the tranquility enlightenment factor in me.’ There being no tranquility enlightenment factor in him, he understands: ‘There is no tranquility enlightenment factor in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen tranquility enlightenment factor, and how the arisen tranquility enlightenment factor comes to fulfillment by development.

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ samādhi sambojjhaṅgaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ samādhi sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ samādhi sambojjhaṅgaṁ, ‘natthi me ajjhattaṁ samādhi sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa samādhi sambojjhagassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa samādhi sambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“There being the concentration enlightenment factor in him, a monk understands: ‘There is the concentration enlightenment factor in me.’ There being no concentration enlightenment factor in him, he understands: ‘There is no concentration enlightenment factor in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen concentration enlightenment factor, and how the arisen concentration enlightenment factor comes to fulfillment by development.

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ upekkhā sambojjhaṅgaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ upekkhā sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ upekkhā sambojjhaṅgaṁ, ‘natthi me ajjhattaṁ upekkhā sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa upekkhā sambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa upekkhā sambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“There being the equanimity enlightenment factor in him, a monk understands: ‘There is the equanimity enlightenment factor in me.’ There being no equanimity enlightenment factor in him, he understands: ‘There is no equanimity enlightenment factor in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen equanimity enlightenment factor, and how the arisen equanimity enlightenment factor comes to fulfillment by development.

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena within himself, he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena within another, and he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena both within himself and within another.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, vaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the phenomena, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the phenomena, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the phenomena.

Atthi dhammāti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya patissati mattāya. Anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there are phenomena is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassi viharati, sattasu bojjhaṅgesu.

“That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the phenomena in phenomena in terms of the seven factors of enlightenment.

4.5 Sacca Pabbaṁ: Section on the Four Noble Truths

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati catūsu ariyasaccesu. Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati catūsu ariyasaccesu?

“Again, monks, a monk dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena in terms of the Four Noble Truths. And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating phenomena in phenomena in terms of the Four Noble Truths?

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu, ‘idaṁ dukkhan’ti yathā bhūtaṁ pajānāti. ‘Ayaṁ dukkha samudayo’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti. ‘Ayaṁ dukkha nirodho’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti. ‘Ayaṁ dukkha nirodha gāminī paṭipadā’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti.

“Here, monks, a monk understands as it actually is: ‘This is suffering.’ He understands as it actually is: ‘This is the origin of suffering.’ He understands as it actually is: ‘This is the cessation of suffering.’ He understands as it actually is: ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.’

(The section on contemplating phenomena in phenomena is finished)

Satipaṭṭhāna Bhāvanānisaṁso: The Results of the Establishing of Mindfulness

Yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya satta vassāni, tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Monks, if anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for seven years, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation, Nibbāna; or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave satta vassāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya cha vassāni, tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone seven years, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for six years, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation, Nibbāna; or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave cha vassāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya pañca vassāni, tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone six years, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for five years, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation, Nibbāna; or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave pañca vassāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya cattāri vassāni, tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone five years, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for four years, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation, Nibbāna; or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave cattāri vassāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya tīṇi vassāni, tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone four years, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for three years, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation, Nibbāna; or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave tīṇī vassāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya dve vassāni, tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone three years, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for two years, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation, Nibbāna; or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave dve vassāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya ekaṁ vassaṁ, tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone two years, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for one year, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation, Nibbāna; or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhatu bhikkhave ekaṁ vassaṁ. Yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya satta māsāni, tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone one year, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for seven months, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation, Nibbāna; or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave satta māsāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya cha māsāni. Tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone seven months, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for six months, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation, Nibbāna; or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave cha māsāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya pañca māsāni. Tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone six months, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for five months, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation, Nibbāna; or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave pañca māsāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya cattāri māsāni. Tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone five months, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for four months, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation, Nibbāna; or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave cattāri māsāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya tīṇi māsāni. Tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone four months, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for three months, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation, Nibbāna; or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave tīṇi māsāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya dve māsāni. Tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, /diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone three months, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for two months, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation, Nibbāna; or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave dve māsāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya māso tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone two months, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for one month, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation, Nibbāna; or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhatu bhikkhave māso, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya aḍḍhamāso, tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone one month, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for half a month, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation, Nibbāna; or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhatu bhikkhave aḍḍhamāso, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya sattāhaṁ, tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā’ti.

“Let alone half a month, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for seven days, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation, Nibbāna; or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Ekāyano ayaṁ bhikkhave maggo sattānaṁ visuddhiyā soka pariddavānaṁ samatikkamāya dukkha domanassānaṁ atthaṅgamāya ñāyassa adhigamāya nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya; yadidaṁ, cattāro satipaṭṭhānā’ti, iti yantaṁ vuttaṁ idametaṁ paṭicca vuttanti.

“So when it was said: ‘Monks, this is the one and only path for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the disappearance of pain and grief, for the attainment of the higher knowledge, and for the realization of Nibbāna,’ it was with reference to the Four Establishments of Mindfulness.”

Idamavoca bhagavā, attamanā te bhikkhu bhagavato bhāsitaṁ abhinandunti.

That is what the Blessed One said. The monks were elated and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

Mahā Satipatthāna Suttaṁ Nitthitaṁ

(The Discourse on the Establishment of Mindfulness is finished)

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Majjhima Nikāya 10 Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta: Discourse on the Establishments of Mindfulness

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