Categories
Digha Nikaya

DN 22 Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta:
Long Discourse on the Establishments Of Mindfulness

A complete set of instructions for practicing mindfulness meditation.

Table of Contents

Uddeso: Introduction

Evaṁ me sutaṁ: Ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā kurūsu viharati, kammāssadammaṁ nāma kurūnaṁ nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi, bhikkhavo’ti. Bhadante’ti te bhikkhu bhagavato paccassosuṁ. Bhagavā etadavoca:

“Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living in the Kuru country, in the town of Kammāsadamma of Kuru people.“There the Blessed One addressed the monks saying, “Monks.” “Bhante,” the monks replied to the Blessed One. Then the Blessed One said this:

Ekāyano ayaṁ bhikkhave maggo, sattānaṁ visuddhiyā, sokapariddavānaṁ samatikkamāya, dukkhadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya, nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya. Yadidaṁ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā. Katame cattāro?

“Monks, this is the one and only path for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the disappearance of pain and grief, for the attainment of the higher knowledge, and for the realization of Nibbāna. “Namely, the four establishments of mindfulness. What are the four?

Idha bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ātāpī, sampajāno, satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ.

Here, monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body, dedicated, fully aware, and mindful, having put away greed and grief for the world.

Vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati, ātāpī, sampajāno, satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā domanassaṁ.

“He dwells contemplating the feelings in feelings, dedicated, fully aware, and mindful, having put away greed and grief for the world.

Citte cittānupassī viharati, ātāpī, sampajāno, satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā domanassaṁ.

“He dwells contemplating the mind in mind, dedicated, fully aware, and mindful, having put away greed and grief for the world.

Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, ātāpī, sampajāno, satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā domanassaṁ.

“He dwells contemplating the phenomena in phenomena, dedicated, fully aware, and mindful, having put away greed and grief for the world.

1. Kāyānupassanā: The Observation of Body

1.1 Ānāpāna Pabbaṁ: Section on Breathing

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati?

“How, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating the body in body?

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu araññagato vā rukkhamūlagato vā suññāgāragato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṁ ābhujitvā, ujuṁ kāyaṁ paṇidhāya parimukhaṁ satiṁ upaṭṭhapetvā. So sato’va assasati, sato’va passasati. Dīghaṁ vā assasanto, dighaṁ assasāmīti pajānāti. Dīghaṁ vā passasanto, dīghaṁ passasāmīti pajānāti. Rassaṁ vā assasanto, rassaṁ assasāmīti pajānāti. Rassaṁ vā passasanto, rassaṁ passasāmīti pajānāti.

Here monks, a monk, gone to the forest or to the foot of a tree or to a secluded place, sits down folding his legs crosswise, holding his body straight, and setting mindfulness on the meditation object. “Mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out.“When breathing in a long breath, he knows, ‘I am breathing in a long breath.’ When breathing out a long breath, he knows, ‘I am breathing out a long breath.’“When breathing in a short breath, he knows: ‘I am breathing in a short breath.’ When breathing out a short breath, he knows: ‘I am breathing out a short breath.’

Sabbakāya paṭisaṁvedī assasissāmīti sikkhati, sabbakāya paṭisaṁvedī passasissāmīti sikkhati. Passambhayaṁ kāya saṅkhāraṁ assasissāmīti sikkhati, passambhayaṁ kāya saṅkhāraṁ passasissāmīti sikkhati.

“‘Conscious of the entire breathing process, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself. Conscious of the entire breathing process, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself. “‘Calming the entire breathing process, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself. ‘Calming the entire breathing process, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho bhamakāro vā bhamakārantevāsī vā dīghaṁ vā añchanto, dīghaṁ añchāmīti pajānāti. Rassaṁ vā añchanto, rassaṁ añchāmīti pajānāti.

“Just as monks, a skilled turner or his apprentice, when making a long turn, understands, ‘I am making a long turn,’ or when making a short turn understands, ‘I am making a short turn.’

Evameva kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu dīghaṁ vā assasanto, dīghaṁ assasāmīti pajānāti. Dīghaṁ vā passasanto dīghaṁ passasāmīti pajānāti. Rassaṁ vā assasanto rassaṁ assasāmīti pajānāti. Rassaṁ vā passasanto rassaṁ passasāmīti pajānāti.

In the same way monks, when breathing in a long breath, the monk knows, ‘I am breathing in a long breath.’ When breathing out a long breath, he knows, ‘I am breathing out a long breath.’ When breathing in a short breath, he knows, ‘I am breathing in a short breath.’ When breathing out a short breath, he knows, ‘I am breathing out a short breath.’

Sabbakāya paṭisaṁvedī assasissāmīti sikkhati. Sabbakāya paṭisaṁvedī passasissāmīti sikkhati. Passambhayaṁ kāyasaṅkhāraṁ assasissāmīti sikkhati, passambhayaṁ kāyasaṅkhāraṁ passasissāmīti sikkhati.

‘Conscious of the entire breathing process, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself. ‘Conscious of the entire breathing process, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself. ‘Calming the entire breathing process, I shall breathe in,’ thus he trains himself. ‘Calming the entire breathing process, I shall breathe out,’ thus he trains himself.

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.2 Iriyāpatha Pabbaṁ: Section on Postures

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave bhikkhu gacchanto vā gacchāmīti pajānāti. Ṭhito vā ṭhitomhīti pajānāti. Nisinno vā nisinnomhīti pajānāti. Sayāno vā sayānomhī ti pajānāti. Yathā yathā vā panasasa kāyo paṇihito hoti. Tathā tathā naṁ pajānāti.

“Again, monks, when walking, a monk understands: ‘I am walking.’ When standing, he understands: ‘I am standing.’ When sitting, he understands: ‘I am sitting.’ When lying down, he understands: ‘I am lying down.’ And he understands accordingly however his body is placed.

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.3 Sampajañña Pabbaṁ: Section on Clear Comprehension

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti. Ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti. Sammiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī hoti. Saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti. Asite pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti. Uccārapassāvakamme sampajānakārī hoti. Gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī hoti.

“Again, monks, a monk is fully alert when going forward and returning, when looking ahead and looking away, when bending and stretching his limbs, when wearing his robes, and carrying his outer robe and bowl. He is fully alert when eating, drinking, consuming food, and tasting. He is fully alert when defecating and urinating. He is fully alert when walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, and keeping silent.

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.4 Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabbaṁ: Section on Repulsiveness

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave bhikkhu imameva kāyaṁ uddhaṁ pādatalā adho kesamatthakā taca pariyantaṁ pūraṁ nānappakārassa asucino paccavekkhati. “Atthi imasmiṁ kāye, kesā, lomā, nakhā, dantā, taco, maṁsaṁ, nahāru, aṭṭhi, aṭṭhi miñjaṁ, vakkaṁ, hadayaṁ, yakanaṁ, kilomakaṁ, pihakaṁ, papphāsaṁ, antaṁ, antaguṇaṁ, udariyaṁ, karīsaṁ, matthaluṁgaṁ pittaṁ, semhaṁ, pubbo, lohitaṁ, sedo, medo, assu, vasā, kheḷo, siṁghāṇikā, lasikā, muttanti.”

“Again, monks, a monk considers this body upwards from the soles of the feet, and downwards from the tips of the hairs, enclosed in skin, as full of many kinds of impurities: ‘In this body there are head hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, blood vessels, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, brain heart, liver, gall bladder, spleen, lungs, small intestine, large intestine, stomach, feces, brain bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, skin oil, saliva, mucus, fluid in the joints, and urine.’

“Seyyathāpi bhikkhave ubhato mukhā muṭoḷi pūrā nānāvihitassa dhaññassa, seyyathīdaṁ, sālīnaṁ, vihīnaṁ, muggānaṁ, māsānaṁ, tilānaṁ, taṇḍulānaṁ. Tamenaṁ cakkhumā puriso muñcitvā paccavekkheyya: “ime sālī, ime vīhī, ime muggā, ime māsā, ime tilā, ime taṇḍulā’ti.

“Just as though there were a bag with an opening at both ends full of many sorts of grain, such as hill rice, red rice, beans, peas, millet, and white rice, and a man with good eyes were to open it and review it thus: ‘This is hill rice, this is red rice, these are beans, these are peas, this is millet, and this is white rice.’

Evameva kho bhikkhave bhikkhu imameva kāyaṁ uddhaṁ pādatalā adho kesamatthakā taca pariyantaṁ pūraṁ nānappakārassa asucino paccavekkhati: atthi imasmiṁ kāye kesā, lomā, nakhā, dantā, taco, maṁsaṁ, nahāru, aṭṭhi, aṭṭhimiñjaṁ, vakkaṁ, hadayaṁ, yakanaṁ, kilomakaṁ, pihakaṁ, papphāsaṁ, antaṁ, antaguṇaṁ, udariyaṁ, karīsaṁ, matthaluṁgaṁ pittaṁ, semhaṁ, pubbo, lohitaṁ, sedo, medo, assu, vasā, kheḷo, siṅghānikā, lasikā, muttanti.”

In the same way , monks, a monk considers this body upwards from the soles of the feet, and downwards from the tips of the hairs, enclosed in skin, as full of many kinds of impurities: ‘There are in this body head hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, blood vessels, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, gall bladder, spleen, lungs, small intestine, large intestine, stomach, feces, brain bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, skin oil, saliva, mucus, fluid in the joints, and urine.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.5 Dhātumanasikāra Pabbaṁ: Reflections on the Elements

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṁ yathā ṭhitaṁ yathā paṇihitaṁ, dhātuso paccavekkhati: atthi imasmiṁ kāye paṭhavī dhātu, āpo dhātu, tejodhātu, vāyo dhātū ti.

“Again, monks, a monk reflects upon this body, however it is placed, however positioned, as consisting of elements thus: ‘In this body there are the earth element, the water element, the fire element, and the air element.’

Seyyathāpi bhikkhave dakkho goghātako vā goghātakantevāsī vā gāviṁ vadhitvā cātummahāpathe khīlaso pativibhajitvā nisinno assa.

“Just as though a skilled butcher or his apprentice had killed a cow, and was seated at the crossroads with it cut into pieces;

Evameva kho bhikkhave bhikkhu imameva kāyaṁ yathā ṭhitaṁ yathā paṇihitaṁ dhātuso paccavekkhati: atthi imasmiṁ kāye paṭhavī dhātu, āpo dhātu, tejo dhātu, vāyo dhātū ti.

So too, monks, a monk reflects upon this very body, however it is placed, however positioned, as consisting of elements thus: ‘In this body there are the earth element, the water element, the fire element, and the air element.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating on others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya, patissatimattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.6 Navasīvathika Pabbaṁ: Nine Charnel-Ground Contemplations

1.6.1 Paṭhamaṁ Sīvathikaṁ: First Charnel-Ground Comtemplations

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṁ sīvathikāya chaḍḍitaṁ ekāhamataṁ vā dvīhamataṁ vā tīhamataṁ vā uddhumātakaṁ, vinīlakaṁ, vipubbakajātaṁ. So imameva kāyaṁ upasaṁharati. Ayampi kho kāyo evaṁ dhammo, evaṁ bhāvī, etaṁ anatīto’ti.

“Again, monks, as though a monk were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, one, two, or three days dead, bloated, blue, and festering, a monk compares this very body with it thus: ‘This body is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating on the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.6.2 Dutiyaṁ Sīvathīkaṁ: Second Charnel-Ground Contemplation

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṁ sivathikāya chaḍḍītaṁ, kākehi vā khajjamānaṁ, kulalehi vā khajjamānaṁ, gijjhehi vā khajjamānaṁ, sunakhehi vā khajjamānaṁ, sigālehi vā khajjamānaṁ, vividhehi vā pāṇaka jātehi khajjamānaṁ, so imameva kāyaṁ upasaṁharati. Ayampi kho kāyo evaṁ dhammo, evaṁ bhāvī, etaṁ anatītoti.

“Again monks, as though a monk were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, being devoured by crows, hawks, vultures, dogs, jackals, or various kinds of creatures, he compares this very body with it thus: ‘This body is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.6.3 Tatiyaṁ Sīvathīkaṁ: Third Charnel-Ground Contemplation

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṁ sīvatikāya chaḍḍitaṁ, aṭṭhisaṅkhalikaṁ, samaṁsalohitaṁ, nahārusambaddhaṁ. So imameva kāyaṁ upasaṁharati. Ayampi kho kāyo evaṁ dhammo, evaṁ bhāvī, etaṁ anatīto’ti.

“Again monks, as though a monk were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, a skeleton with flesh and blood, held together with blood vessels; he compares this very body with it thus: ‘This body is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.6.4 Catutthaṁ Sīvathīkaṁ: Fourth Charnel-Ground Contemplation

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṁ sīvathikāya chaḍḍītaṁ, aṭṭhi saṅkhalikaṁ, nimmaṁsa lohitamakkhitaṁ, nahāru sambaddhaṁ. So imameva kāyaṁ upasaṁharati. Ayampi kho kāyo evaṁ dhammo, evaṁ bhāvī, etaṁ anatīto’ti.

“Again monks, as though a monk were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, a fleshless skeleton smeared with blood, held together with blood vessels, he compares this very body with it thus: ‘This body is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.6.5 Pañcamaṁ Sīvathīkaṁ: Fifth Charnel-Ground Contemplation

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṁ sīvathikāya chaḍḍitaṁ, aṭṭhika saṅkhalikaṁ, apagata maṁsalohitaṁ nahāru sambaddhaṁ. So imameva kāyaṁ upasaṁharati. Ayampi kho kāyo evaṁ dhammo, evaṁ bhāvī, etaṁ anatīto’ti.

“Again monks, as though a monk were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, a skeleton without flesh and blood, held together with blood vessels; he compares this very body with it thus: ‘This body is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.6.6 Chaṭṭhaṁ Sīvathīkaṁ: Sixth Charnel-Ground Contemplation

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṁ sīvathikāya chaḍḍitaṁ aṭṭhikāni apagatasambandhāni disāvidisāsu vikkhittāni aññena hatthaṭṭhikaṁ, aññena pādaṭṭhikaṁ, aññena jaṅghaṭṭhikaṁ, aññena ūraṭṭhikaṁ, aññena piṭṭhiṭṭhikaṁ, aññena kaṭaṭṭhikaṁ, aññena gīvaṭṭhikaṁ, aññena dantaṭṭhikaṁ, aññena sīsakaṭāhaṁ. So imameva kāyaṁ upasaṁharati. Ayampi kho kāyo evaṁ dhammo, evaṁ bhāvī, etaṁ anatīto’ti.

“Again monks, as though a monk were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, disconnected bones scattered in all directions: here a hand-bone, there a foot-bone, here a shin-bone, there a thigh-bone, here a hip-bone, there a back bone, here a rib-bone, there a pelvis, here a neck-bone, there the teeth and here the skull. He compares this body with it thus: ‘This body is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.6.7 Sattamaṁ Sīvathīkaṁ: Seventh Charnel-Ground Contemplation

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṁ sīvathīkāya chaḍḍitaṁ aṭṭhikāni setāni saṅkhavaṇṇupanibhāni. So imameva kāyaṁ upasaṁharati. Ayampi kho kāyo evaṁ dhammo, evaṁ bhāvī, etaṁ anatīto’ti.

“Again monks, as though a monk were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, bones bleached white, the colour of shells, he compares this very body with it thus: ‘This body is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body

1.6.8 Aṭṭhamaṁ Sīvathīkaṁ: Eighth Charnel-Ground Contemplation

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṁ sīvathikāya chaḍḍitaṁ, aṭṭhikāni puñjīkatāni terovassikāni. So imameva kāyaṁ upasaṁharati. Ayampi kho kāyo evaṁ dhammo, evaṁ bhāvī, etaṁ anatīto’ti.

“Again monks, as though a monk were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, bones heaped up, several years old, he compares this very body with it thus: ‘This body is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating on his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

1.6.9 Navamaṁ Sīvathīkaṁ: Ninth Charnel-Ground Contemplation

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṁ sīvathikāya chaḍḍitaṁ, aṭṭhikāni pūtīni, cuṇṇaka jātāni. So imameva kāyaṁ upasaṁharati. Ayampi kho kāyo evaṁ dhammo, evaṁ bhāvī, etaṁ anatīto’ti.

“Again monks, as though a monk were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground, bones rotted away to dust like lime powder, he compares this very body with it thus: ‘This body is of the same nature, it will be like that, it is not exempt from that fate.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating his own body, he dwells contemplating others’ bodies, and he dwells contemplating both his and others’ bodies.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati. Samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the body, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the body, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the body.

Atthi kāyo’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a body is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body.

(The section on contemplating the body in body is finished.)

2. Vedanānupassanā: Contemplation of Feeling

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati?

“And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating feelings in feelings?

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu sukhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyamāno, sukhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyāmī ti pajānāti,

“Here monks, when feeling a pleasant feeling, a monk understands: ‘I feel a pleasant feeling.’

Dukkhaṁ vā vedanaṁ vediyamāno, dukkhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyāmī ti pajānāti.

When feeling a painful feeling, he understands: ‘I feel a painful feeling.’

Adukkhamasukhaṁ vā vedanaṁ vediyamāno, adukkhamasukhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyāmī ti pajānāti.

When feeling neither a painful nor pleasant feeling, he understands: ‘I feel neither a painful nor pleasant feeling.’

Sāmisaṁ vā sukhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyamāno, sāmisaṁ sukhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyāmī ti pajānāti.

“When feeling a pleasant feeling based on the five sense objects; forms, sounds, smells, tastes, and tangibles, he understands it properly: ‘I am feeling a wordly pleasant feeling.’

Nirāmisaṁ vā sukhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyamāno, nirāmisaṁ sukhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyāmī ti pajānāti.

When feeling a pleasant feeling through his spiritual practice, he understands it properly: ‘I am feeling a spiritual pleasant feeling.’

Sāmisaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyamāno,/sāmisaṁ dukkhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyāmī ti pajānāti.

When feeling a painful feeling based on the five sense objects; forms, sounds, smells, tastes, and tangibles, he understands it properly: ‘I am feeling a worldly painful feeling.’

Nirāmisaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyamāno, nirāmisaṁ dukkhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyāmī ti pajānāti.

When feeling a painful feeling based on the lack of spiritual fruits, he understands it properly: ‘I am feeling a spiritual painful feeling.’

Sāmisaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyamāno, sāmisaṁ adukkhamasukhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyāmī ti pajānāti.

When feeling a neither painful nor pleasant feeling based on the five sense objects; forms, sounds, smells, tastes, and tangibles, he understands it properly: ‘I am feeling a neither painful nor pleasant worldly feeling.’

Nirāmisaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyamāno, nirāmisaṁ adukkhamasukhaṁ vedanaṁ vediyāmī ti pajānāti.

When feeling a neither painful nor pleasant feeling through his spiritual practice he understands it properly: ‘I am feeling a neither painful nor pleasant spiritual feeling.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati, ajjhatta bahiddhā vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating feelings in feelings within himself, he dwells contemplating feelings in feelings within another, and he dwells contemplating feelings in feelings both within himself and within another.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati, vaya dhammānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati, samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of feelings, he dwells contemplating the passing away of feelings, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of feelings.

Atthi vedanā ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya. Anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a feeling is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati.

That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating feelings in feelings.

(The section on contemplating feelings in feelings is finished.)

3. Cittānupassanā: Contemplation of Mind

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu citte cittānupassī viharati?

“And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating mind in mind?

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu sarāgaṁ vā cittaṁ, sarāgaṁ cittanti pajānāti.

“Here monks, a monk understands a mind with lust as a mind with lust.

Vītarāgaṁ vā cittaṁ, vītarāgaṁ cittanti pajānāti.

He understands a mind without lust as a mind without lust.

Sadosaṁ vā cittaṁ, sadosaṁ cittanti pajānāti.

He understands a mind with hatred as a mind with hatred.

Vītadosaṁ vā cittaṁ, vītadosaṁ cittanti pajānāti.

He understands a mind without hatred as a mind without hatred.

Samohaṁ vā cittaṁ, samohaṁ cittanti pajānāti.

He understands a mind with delusion as a mind with delusion.

Vītamohaṁ vā cittaṁ, vītamohaṁ cittanti pajānāti.

He understands a mind without delusion as a mind without delusion.

Saṅkhittaṁ vā cittaṁ, saṅkhitta cittanti pajānāti.

He understands a contracted mind as contracted.

Vikkhittaṁ vā cittaṁ, vikkhittaṁ cittanti pajānāti.

He understands a distracted mind as distracted.

Mahaggataṁ vā cittaṁ, mahaggataṁ cittanti pajānāti.

He understands an exalted mind as exalted.

Amahaggataṁ vā cittaṁ, amahaggataṁ cittanti pajānāti.

He understands an unexalted mind as unexalted.

Sauttaraṁ vā cittaṁ, sauttaraṁ cittanti pajānāti.

He understands a surpassable mind as surpassable.

Anuttaraṁ vā cittaṁ, anuttaraṁ cittanti pajānāti.

He understands an unsurpassable mind as unsurpassable.

Samāhitaṁ vā cittaṁ, samāhitaṁ cittanti pajānāti.

He understands a concentrated mind as concentrated.

Asamāhitaṁ vā cittaṁ, asamāhitaṁ cittanti pajānāti.

He understands an unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated.

Vimuttaṁ vā cittaṁ, vimuttaṁ cittanti pajānāti.

He understands a liberated mind as liberated.

Avimuttaṁ vā cittaṁ, avimuttaṁ cittanti pajānāti.

And he understands an unliberated mind as unliberated.

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā citte cittānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā citte cittānupassī viharati, /ajjhatta bahiddhā vā citte cittānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating mind in mind within himself, he dwells contemplating mind in mind within another, and he dwells contemplating mind in mind both within himself and within another.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā cittasmiṁ viharati, vaya dhammānupassī vā cittasmiṁ viharati samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā cittasmiṁ viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the mind, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the mind, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the mind.

Atthi cittanti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya patissati mattāya. Anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there is a mind is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu citte cittānupassī viharati.

That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating mind in mind.

(The section on contemplating mind in mind is finished.)

4. Dhammānupassanā: Contemplation of Phenomena

4.1 Nīvaraṇa Pabbaṁ: Section on the Hindrances

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati?

“And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating phenomena in phenomena?

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassi viharati; pañcasu nīvaraṇesu.

“Here monks, a monk dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena in terms of the five hindrances.

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati pañcasu nīvaraṇesu?

And how does monks, a monk dwell contemplating phenomena in phenomena in terms of the five hindrances?

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ kāmacchandaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ kāmacchando’ti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ kāmacchandaṁ, ‘natthi me ajjhattaṁ kāmacchando’ti pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa kāmacchandassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa kāmacchandassa pahānaṁ hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca pahīnassa kāmacchandassa āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti tañca pajānāti.

“Here, monks, there being sense desire in him, a monk understands: ‘There is sense desire in me.’ There being no sense desire in him, he understands: ‘There is no sense desire in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of unarisen sense desire, how there comes to be the abandoning of arisen sense desire, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of abandoned sense desire.

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ vyāpādaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ vyāpādo’ti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ vyāpādaṁ, ‘natthi me ajjhattaṁ vyāpādo’ti pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa vyāpādassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa vyāpādassa pahānaṁ hoti tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca pahīnassa vyāpādassa āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“There being ill will in him, a monk understands: ‘There is ill will in me.’ There being no ill will in him, he understands: ‘There is no ill will in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of unarisen ill will, how there comes to be the abandoning of arisen ill will, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of abandoned ill will.

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ thīnamiddhaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ thīnamiddhan’ti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ thīnamiddhaṁ, ‘natthi me ajjhattaṁ thīnamiddhan’ti pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa thīnamiddhassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa thīnamiddhassa pahānaṁ hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca pahīnassa thīnamiddhassa āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“There being dullness and drowsiness in him, a monk understands: ‘There is dullness and drowsiness in me.’ There being no dullness and drowsiness in him, he understands: ‘There is no dullness and drowsiness in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of unarisen dullness and drowsiness, how there comes to be the abandoning of arisen dullness and drowsiness, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of abandoned dullness and drowsiness.

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ uddhacca kukkuccaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ uddhacca kukkuccan’ti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ uddhacca kukkuccaṁ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṁ uddhacca kukkuccanti’ pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa uddhacca kukkuccassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa uddhacca kukkuccassa pahānaṁ hoti, tañca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa uddhacca kukkuccassa āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“There being restlessness and remorse in him, a monk understands: ‘There is restlessness and remorse in me.’ There being no restlessness and remorse in him, he understands: ‘There is no restlessness and remorse in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of unarisen restlessness and remorse, how there comes to be the abandoning of arisen restlessness and remorse, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of abandoned restlessness and remorse.

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ vicikicchaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ vicikicchā’ti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ vicikicchaṁ, ‘natthi me ajjhattaṁ vicikicchā’ti pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannāya vicikicchāya uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannāya vicikicchāya pahānaṁ hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca pahīnāya vicikicchāya āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“There being doubt in him, a monk understands: ‘There is doubt in me.’ There being no doubt in him, he understands: ‘There is no doubt in me.’ He understands how there comes to be the arising of unarisen doubt, how there comes to be the abandoning of arisen doubt, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of abandoned doubt.

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, ajjhatta bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena within himself, he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena within another, and he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena both within himself and within another.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, vaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the phenomena, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the phenomena, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the phenomena.

Atthi dhammāti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya patissati mattāya. Anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there are phenomena is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati pañcasu nīvaraṇesu.

That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the phenomena in phenomena in terms of the five hindrances.

4.2 Khandha Pabbaṁ: Section on the Aggregates

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu. Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu?

“Again monks, a monk dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena in terms of the five aggregates of clinging. And how monks, does a monk dwell contemplating phenomena in phenomena in terms of the five aggregates of clinging?

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu, ‘iti rūpaṁ, iti rūpassa samudayo, iti rūpassa atthaṅgamo.

“Here monks, a monk understands: ‘Such is material form, such its origin, and such its passing away.

Iti vedanā, iti vedanāya samudayo, iti vedanāya atthaṅgamo.

Such is feeling, such its origin, and such its passing away.

Iti saññā, iti saññāya samudayo, iti saññāya atthaṅgamo.

Such is perception, such its origin, and such its passing away.

Iti saṅkhārā, iti saṅkhārānaṁ samudayo, iti saṅkhārānaṁ atthaṅgamo.

Such are volitional formations, such their origin, and such their passing away.

Iti viññāṇaṁ, iti viññāṇassa samudayo, iti viññāṇassa atthaṅgamo’ti.

Such is consciousness, such its origin, and such its passing away.’

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena within himself, he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena within another, and he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena both within himself and within another.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, vaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the phenomena, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the phenomena, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the phenomena.

Atthi dhammā’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya, patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there are phenomena is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu.

That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the phenomena in phenomena in terms of the five aggregates of clinging.

4.3 Āyatana Pabbaṁ: Section on the Sense Bases

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati chasu ajjhattikabāhiresu āyatanesu. Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati chasu ajjhattika bāhiresu āyatanesu?

“Again monks, a monk dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena in terms of the six internal and external sense bases. And how monks, does a monk dwell contemplating phenomena in phenomena in terms of the six internal and external sense bases?

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu cakkhuñca pajānāti. Rūpe ca pajānāti. Yañca tadubhayaṁ paṭicca uppajjati saññojanaṁ tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa saññojanassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa saññojanassa pahānaṁ hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca pahīnassa saññojanassa āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“Here monks, a monk understands the eye, he understands forms, and he understands the fetter that arises dependent on both. He understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen fetter, how there comes to be the abandoning of the arisen fetter, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of the abandoned fetter.

Sotañca pajānāti, sadde ca pajānāti. Yañca tadubhayaṁ paṭicca uppajjati saññojanaṁ tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa saññojanassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa saññojanassa pahānaṁ hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca pahīnassa saññojanassa āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“He understands the ear, he understands sounds, and he understands the fetter that arises dependent on both. He understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen fetter, how there comes to be the abandoning of the arisen fetter, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of the abandoned fetter.

Ghānañca pajānāti. Gandhe ca pajānāti. Yañca tadubhayaṁ paṭicca uppajjati saññojanaṁ tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa saññojanassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa saññojanassa pahānaṁ hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca pahīnassa saññojanassa āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“He understands the nose, he understands odors, and he understands the fetter that arises dependent on both. He understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen fetter, how there comes to be the abandoning of the arisen fetter, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of the abandoned fetter.

Jivhañca pajānāti, rase ca pajānāti. Yañca tadubhayaṁ paṭicca uppajjati saññojanaṁ tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa saññojanassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa saññojanassa pahānaṁ hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca pahīnassa saññojanassa āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“He understands the tongue, he understands tastes, and he understands the fetter that arises dependent on both. He understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen fetter, how there comes to be the abandoning of the arisen fetter, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of the abandoned fetter.

Kāyañca pajānāti. Phoṭṭhabbe ca pajānāti. Yañca tadubhayaṁ paṭicca uppajjati saññojanaṁ tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa saññojanassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa saññojanassa pahānaṁ hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca pahīnassa saññojanassa āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“He understands the body, he understands tactile objects, and he understands the fetter that arises dependent on both. He understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen fetter, how there comes to be the abandoning of the arisen fetter, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of the abandoned fetter.

Manañca pajānāti. Dhamme ca pajānāti. Yañca tadubhayaṁ paṭicca uppajjati saññojanaṁ, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa saññojanassa uppādo hoti, /tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa saññojanassa pahānaṁ hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca pahīnassa saññojanassa āyatiṁ anuppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“He understands the mind, he understands mental objects, and he understands the fetter that arises dependent on both. He understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen fetter, how there comes to be the abandoning of the arisen fetter, and how there comes to be the future non-arising of the abandoned fetter.

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena within himself, he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena within another, and he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena both within himself and within another.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, vaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the phenomena, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the phenomena, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the phenomena.

Atthi dhammāti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya patissati mattāya. Anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there are phenomena is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassi viharati chasu ajjhattika bāhiresu āyatanesu.

That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the phenomena in phenomena in terms of the six internal and external sense bases.

4.4 Bojjhanga Pabbaṁ: Section on the Factors of Enlightenment

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, sattasu bojjhaṅgesu. Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, sattasu bojjhaṅgesu?

“Again monks, a monk dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena in terms of the seven enlightenment factors. And how monks, does a monk dwell contemplating phenomena in phenomena in terms of the seven enlightenment factors?

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ sati sambojjhaṅgaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ sati sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ sati sambojjhaṅgaṁ, “natthi me ajjhattaṁ sati sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa sati sambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti tañca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa sati sambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūri hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“Here monks, there being the mindfulness enlightenment factor in him, a monk understands: ‘There is the mindfulness enlightenment factor in me.’ There being no mindfulness enlightenment factor in him, he understands: ‘There is no mindfulness enlightenment factor in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen mindfulness enlightenment factor, and how the arisen mindfulness enlightenment factor comes to fulfillment by development.

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅgaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅgaṁ, natthi me ajjhattaṁ dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“There being the investigation of phenomena enlightenment factor in him, a monk understands: ‘There is the investigation of phenomena enlightenment factor in me.’ There being no investigation of phenomena enlightenment factor in him, he understands: ‘There is no investigation of phenomena enlightenment factor in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen investigation of phenomena enlightenment factor, and how the arisen investigation of phenomena enlightenment factor comes to fulfillment by development.

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ viriya sambojjhaṅgaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ viriya sambojjhaṅgo’eti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ viriya sambojjhaṅgaṁ, natthi me ajjhattaṁ viriya sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa viriya sambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa viriya sambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“There being the energy enlightenment factor in him, a monk understands: ‘There is the energy enlightenment factor in me.’ There being no energy enlightenment factor in him, he understands: ‘There is no energy enlightenment factor in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen energy enlightenment factor, and how the arisen energy enlightenment factor comes to fulfillment by development.

Santaṁ vā ajjhattā pīti sambojjhaṅgaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ pīti sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ pīti sambojjhaṅgaṁ, ‘natthi me ajjhattaṁ pīti sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa pīti sambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa pīti sambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“There being the rapture enlightenment factor in him, a monk understands: ‘There is the rapture enlightenment factor in me.’ There being no rapture enlightenment factor in him, he understands: ‘There is no rapture enlightenment factor in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen rapture enlightenment factor, and how the arisen rapture enlightenment factor comes to fulfillment by development.

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ passaddhi sambojjhaṅgaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ passaddhi sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ passaddhi sambojjhaṅgaṁ, ‘natthi me ajjhattaṁ passaddhi sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa passaddhi sambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa passaddhi sambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“There being the tranquility enlightenment factor in him, a monk understands: ‘There is the tranquility enlightenment factor in me.’ There being no tranquility enlightenment factor in him, he understands: ‘There is no tranquility enlightenment factor in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen tranquility enlightenment factor, and how the arisen tranquility enlightenment factor comes to fulfillment by development.

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ samādhi sambojjhaṅgaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ samādhi sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ samādhi sambojjhaṅgaṁ, ‘natthi me ajjhattaṁ samādhi sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa samādhi sambojjhagassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa samādhi sambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“There being the concentration enlightenment factor in him, a monk understands: ‘There is the concentration enlightenment factor in me.’ There being no concentration enlightenment factor in him, he understands: ‘There is no concentration enlightenment factor in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen concentration enlightenment factor, and how the arisen concentration enlightenment factor comes to fulfillment by development.

Santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ upekkhā sambojjhaṅgaṁ, ‘atthi me ajjhattaṁ upekkhā sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ upekkhā sambojjhaṅgaṁ, ‘natthi me ajjhattaṁ upekkhā sambojjhaṅgo’ti pajānāti. Yathā ca anuppannassa upekkhā sambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti, tañca pajānāti. Yathā ca uppannassa upekkhā sambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti, tañca pajānāti.

“There being the equanimity enlightenment factor in him, a monk understands: ‘There is the equanimity enlightenment factor in me.’ There being no equanimity enlightenment factor in him, he understands: ‘There is no equanimity enlightenment factor in me.’ He also understands how there comes to be the arising of the unarisen equanimity enlightenment factor, and how the arisen equanimity enlightenment factor comes to fulfillment by development.

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena within himself, he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena within another, and he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena both within himself and within another.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, vaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudaya vaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the phenomena, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the phenomena, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the phenomena.

Atthi dhammāti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa mattāya patissati mattāya. Anissito ca viharati. Na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there are phenomena is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassi viharati, sattasu bojjhaṅgesu.

That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the phenomena in phenomena in terms of the seven factors of enlightenment.

4.5 Sacca Pabbaṁ: Section on the Four Noble Truths

Puna ca paraṁ bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati catūsu ariyasaccesu. Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati catūsu ariyasaccesu?

“Again, monks, a monk dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena in terms of the Four Noble Truths. And how monks, does a monk dwell contemplating phenomena in phenomena in terms of the Four Noble Truths?

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu, ‘idaṁ dukkhan’ti yathā bhūtaṁ pajānāti. ‘Ayaṁ dukkha samudayo’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti. ‘Ayaṁ dukkha nirodho’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti. ‘Ayaṁ dukkha nirodha gāminī paṭipadā’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti.

“Here monks, a monk understands as it actually is: ‘This is suffering.’ He understands as it actually is: ‘This is the origin of suffering.’ He under stands as it actually is: ‘This is the cessation of suffering.’ He understands as it actually is: ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.’

4.5.1 Dukkhasacca Niddeso: The Noble Truth of Suffering

Katamañca bhikkhave dukkhaṁ ariyasaccaṁ? Jāti pi dukkhā, jarāpi dukkhā, wyādhipi dukkho, maraṇampi dukkhaṁ, soka-parideva-dukkhā-domanassa-upāyāsāpi dukkhā, appiyehi sampayogo dukkho, piyehi vippayogo dukkho, yampicchaṁ na labhati tampi dukkhaṁ, saṅkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhāpi dukkhā.

“And what, monks, is the noble truth of suffering? Birth is suffering, aging is suffering, sickness is suffering, death is suffering, sorrow, lamentation, bodily pain, mental pain, and despair are suffering, union with what is displeasing is suffering; separation from what is pleasing is suffering, not getting what one desires, that too, is suffering. In brief, the five aggregates of clinging are suffering.

Katamā ca bhikkhave jāti? Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ sattānaṁ, tamhi tamhi sattanikāye, jāti, sañjāti, okkanti, abhinibbanti, khandhānaṁ pātubhāvo, āyatanānaṁ paṭilābho, ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave jāti.

“And what, monks, is birth? It is the birth of beings in the various orders of beings; their coming to birth, descending into a womb, generation of a specific birth, the appearance of the aggregates, and obtaining the sense bases. This, monks, is called birth.

Katamā ca bhikkhave jarā? Yā tesaṁ tesaṁ sattānaṁ, tamhi tamhi sattanikāye, jarā, jīraṇatā, khaṇḍiccaṁ, pāliccaṁ, valittacatā, āyuno saṁhāni, indriyānaṁ paripāko, ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave jarā.

“And what, monks, is aging? It is the aging of beings in the various orders of beings, their old age, brokenness of teeth, greyness of hair, wrinkling of skin, decline of life, weakness of faculties. This, monks, is called aging.

Katamañca bhikkhave maraṇaṁ? Yaṁ tesaṁ tesaṁ sattānaṁ tamhā tamhā sattanikāyā cuti, cavanatā, bhedo, antaradhānaṁ, maccumaraṇaṁ, kālakiriyā, khandhānaṁ bhedo, kaḷebarassa nikkhepo, jīvitindriyassupacchedo, idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave maraṇaṁ.

“And what, monks, is death? It is the passing of beings from the various orders of beings, their passing away, dissolution, disappearance, dying, completion of time, breaking up of the aggregates, laying down of the body and cutting off the life faculty. This, monks, is called death.

Katamo ca bhikkhave soko? Yo kho bhikkhave aññataraññatarena byasanena samannāgatassa, aññataraññatarena dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhassa, soko, socanā, socitattaṁ, antosoko, antoparisoko, ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave soko.

“And what, monks, is sorrow? Monks, it is sorrow, sorrowing, sorrowfulness, inner sorrow, inward sorrow, of one who has encountered some misfortune or is affected by some painful state. This, monks, is called sorrow.

Katamo ca bhikkhave paridevo? Yo kho bhikkhave aññataraññatarena byasanena samannāgatassa, aññataraññatarena dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhassa, ādevo, paridevo, ādevanā, paridevanā, ādevitattaṁ, paridevitattaṁ, ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave paridevo.

“And what, monks, is lamentation? Monks, it is to wail and lament, wailing and lamenting; wail and lamentation of one who has encountered some misfortune or is affected by some painful state. This, monks, is called lamentation.

Katamañca bhikkhave dukkhaṁ? Yaṁ kho bhikkhave kāyikaṁ dukkhaṁ, kāyikaṁ asātaṁ, kāya samphassajaṁ dukkhaṁ, asātaṁ, vedayitaṁ, idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave dukkhaṁ.

“And what, monks, is pain? Monks, it is bodily pain, bodily discomfort, painful, uncomfortable feeling born of bodily contact. This, monks, is called pain.

Katamañca bhikkhave domanassaṁ? Yaṁ kho bhikkhave cetasikaṁ dukkhaṁ, cetasikaṁ asātaṁ, manosamphassajaṁ dukkhaṁ, asātaṁ, vedayitaṁ, idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave domanassaṁ.

“And what, monks, is grief? Monks, it is mental pain, mental discomfort, painful, uncomfortable feeling born of mental contact. This, monks, is called grief.

Katamo ca bhikkhave upāyāso? Yo kho bhikkhave aññataraññatarena byasanena samannāgatassa aññataraññatarena dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhassa, āyāso, upāyāso, āyāsitattaṁ, upāyāsitattaṁ. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave upāyāso.

“And what, monks, is despair? Monks, it is trouble and despair, tribulation and desperation, of one who has encountered some misfortune or is affected by some painful state. This, monks, is called despair.

Katamo ca bhikkhave appiyehi sampayogo dukkho? Idha yassa te honti aniṭṭhā, akantā, amanāpā, rūpā, saddā, gandhā, rasā, phoṭṭhabbā, dhammā, ye vā panassa te honti, anatthakāmā, ahitakāmā, aphāsukakāmā, ayogakkhemakāmā, yā tehi saddhiṁ saṅgati, samāgamo, samodhānaṁ, missībhāvo, ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave appiyehi sampayogo dukkho.

“And what, monks, is union with what is displeasing? Here, the coming together, meeting, encounter with those forms, sounds, odors, tastes, tactile objects, or mental phenomena that are unwished for, undesired, and disagreeable to oneself, or with those who desire one’s ruin, harm, discomfort, and endangerment; this is called the suffering of union with what is displeasing.

Katamo ca bhikkhave piyehi vippayogo dukkho? Idha yassa te honti iṭṭhā, kantā, manāpā, rūpā, saddā, gandhā, rasā, phoṭṭhabbā, dhammā ye vā panassa te honti atthakāmā, hitakāmā, phāsukakāmā, yogakkhemakāmā mātā vā pitā vā bhātā vā, bhagini vā jeṭṭhā vā kaniṭṭhā vā mittā vā amaccā vā ñāti sālohitā vā, yā tehi saddhiṁ asaṅgati, asamāgamo, asamodhānaṁ amissībhāvo, ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave piyehi vippayogo dukkho.

“And what, monks, is separation from what is pleasing? Here, the absence of coming together, meeting, encounter with those forms, sounds, odors, tastes, tactile objects, or mental phenomena that are wished for, desired, and agreeable to oneself, or with those who desire one’s good, welfare, comfort, and security; mother, father, brother, sister; older or younger kinsmen; friends, colleagues, relatives or family members; this is called the suffering of separation from what is pleasing.

Katamañca bhikkhave yampicchaṁ na labhati tampi dukkhaṁ? Jāti dhammānaṁ bhikkhave sattānaṁ evaṁ icchā uppajjati: aho vata mayaṁ na jāti dhammā assāma, na ca vata no jāti āgaccheyyāti. Na kho panetaṁ icchāya pattabbaṁ. Idampi yampicchaṁ na labhati tampi dukkhaṁ.

“And what, monks, is the suffering of not getting what one desires? Monks, to beings subject to birth there comes the wish: ‘Oh, that we were not subject to birth! That birth would not come to us!’ But this is not to be obtained by mere wishing. Therefore, not getting what one desires is suffering.

Jarā dhammānaṁ bhikkhave sattānaṁ evaṁ icchā uppajjati: aho vata mayaṁ na jarādhammā assāma, na ca vata no jarā āgaccheyyā ti, na kho panetaṁ icchāya pantabbaṁ, idampi yampicchaṁ na labhati tampi dukkhaṁ.

“To beings subject to aging there comes the wish: ‘Oh, that we were not subject to aging! That aging would not come to us!’ But this is not to be obtained by mere wishing. Therefore, not getting what one desires is suffering.

Byādhi dhammānaṁ bhikkhave sattānaṁ evaṁ icchā uppajjati. Aho vata mayaṁ na byādhi dhammā assāma. Na ca vata no byādhi āgaccheyyāti, na kho panetaṁ icchāya pattabbaṁ, idampi yampicchaṁ na labhati tampi dukkhaṁ.

“To beings subject to sickness there comes the wish: ‘Oh, that we were not subject to sickness! That sickness would not come to us!’ But this is not to be obtained by mere wishing. Therefore, not getting what one desires is suffering.

Maraṇa dhammānaṁ bhikkhave sattānaṁ evaṁ icchā uppajjati. Aho! Vata mayaṁ na maraṇadhammā assāma, na ca vata no maraṇaṁ āgaccheyyāti, na kho panetaṁ icchāya pattabbaṁ. Idampi yampicchaṁ na labhati tampi dukkhaṁ.

“To beings subject to death there comes the wish: ‘Oh, that we were not subject to death! That death would not come to us!’ But this is not to be obtained by mere wishing. Therefore, not getting what one desires is suffering.

Sokadhammānaṁ bhikkhave sattānaṁ evaṁ icchā uppajjati. Aho vata mayaṁ na sokadhammā assāma, na ca vata no soko āgaccheyyāti, na kho panetaṁ icchāya pattabbaṁ. Idampi yampicchaṁ na labhati tampi dukkhaṁ.

“To beings subject to sorrow there comes the wish: ‘Oh, that we were not subject to sorrow! That sorrow would not come to us!’ But this is not to be obtained by mere wishing. Therefore, not getting what one desires is suffering.

Paridevadhammānaṁ bhikkhave sattānaṁ evaṁ icchā uppajjati, aho vata mayaṁ na paridevadhammā assāma, na ca vata no paridevo āgaccheyyāti, na kho panetaṁ icchāya pattabbaṁ. Idampi yampicchaṁ na labhati tampi dukkhaṁ.

“To beings subject to lamentation there comes the wish: ‘Oh, that we were not subject to lamentation! That lamentation would not come to us!’ But this is not to be obtained by mere wishing. Therefore, not getting what one desires is suffering.

Dukkhadhammānaṁ bhikkhave sattānaṁ evaṁ icchā uppajjati. Aho vata mayaṁ na dukkha dhammā assāma. Na ca vata no dukkhaṁ āgaccheyyāti, na kho panetaṁ icchāya pattabbaṁ. Idampi yampicchaṁ na labhati tampi dukkhaṁ/.

“To beings subject to pain there comes the wish: ‘Oh, that we were not subject to pain! That pain would not come to us!’ But this is not to be obtained by mere wishing. Therefore, not getting what one desires is suffering.

Domanassa dhammānaṁ bhikkhave sattānaṁ evaṁ icchā uppajjati. Aho vata mayaṁ na domanassa dhammā assāma, na ca vata no domanassaṁ āgaccheyyāti, na kho panetaṁ icchāya pattabbaṁ. Idampi yampicchaṁ na labhati tampi dukkhaṁ.

“To beings subject to grief there comes the wish: ‘Oh, that we were not subject to grief! That grief would not come to us!’ But this is not to be obtained by mere wishing. Therefore, not getting what one desires is suffering.

Upāyāsadhammānaṁ bhikkhave sattānaṁ evaṁ icchā uppajjati. Aho vata mayaṁ na upāyāsadhammā asasāma, na ca vata no upāyāso āgaccheyyāti, na kho panetaṁ icchāya pattabbaṁ. Idampi yampicchaṁ na labhati tampi dukkhaṁ.

“To beings subject to despair, there comes the wish: ‘Oh, that we were not subject to despair! That despair would not come to us!’ But this is not to be obtained by mere wishing. Therefore, not getting what one desires is suffering.

Katame ca bhikkhave saṅkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā? Seyyathīdaṁ, rūpūpādānakkhandho, vedanūpādānakkhandho, saññūpādānakkhandho, saṅkhārūpādānakkhandho, viññānūpādānakkhandho. Ime vuccanti bhikkhave saṅkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhāpi dukkhā, idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave dukkhaṁ ariyasaccaṁ.

“And what, monks, are the five aggregates of clinging that, in brief, are suffering? They are: the material form aggregate affected by clinging, the feeling aggregate affected by clinging, the perception aggregate affected by clinging, the volitional formations aggregate affected by clinging, and the consciousness aggregate affected by clinging. These, monks, are called the five aggregates of clinging that, in brief, are suffering.

4.5.2 Samudayasacca Niddeso: The Noble Truth of the Arising of Suffering

Katamañca bhikkhave dukkha samudayaṁ ariyasaccaṁ? Yāyaṁ taṇhā ponobhavikā nandirāga sahagatā tatra tatrābhi nandinī, seyyathīdaṁ: kāma taṇhā bhava taṇhā vibhava taṇhā.

“And what, monks, is the noble truth of the origin of suffering? It is this craving, which produces re-existance, accompanied by delight and lust, and finding delight now hereand now there; namely, craving for sense pleasures, craving for existence, and craving for non-existence.

Sā kho panesā bhikkhave taṇhā kattha uppajjamānā uppajjati? Kattha nivisamānā nivisati?

“When this craving arises, monks, where does it arise? When it gets established, where does it get established?

Yaṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Whatever in the world has a pleasant and agreeable nature: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Kiñca loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ?

And what in the world has a pleasant and agreeable nature?

Cakkhuṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

“The eye has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Sotaṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

“The ear has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Ghānaṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

“The nose has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Jivhā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

“The tongue has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Kāyo loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

“The body has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Mano loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

“The mind has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Rūpā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Forms have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Saddā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Sounds have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Gandhā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Odors have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Rasā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Tastes have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Phoṭṭhabbā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, /etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Tactile objects have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Dhammā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇahā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Mental phenomena have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Cakkhu viññāṇaṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Eye-consciousness has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Sota viññāṇaṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthasā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Ear-consciousness has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Ghāna viññāṇaṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. /Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Nose-consciousness has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Jivhā viññāṇaṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. /Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Tongue-consciousness has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Kāya viññāṇaṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Body-consciousness has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Mano viññāṇaṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Mind-consciousness has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Cakkhu samphasso loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Eye-contact has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Sota samphasso loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati./Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Ear-contact has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Ghāna samphasso loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Nose-contact has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Jivhā samphasso loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati./Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Tongue-contact has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Kāya samphasso loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Body-contact has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Mano samphasso loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Mind-contact has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Cakkhu samphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Feelings born of eye-contact have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Sota samphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Feelings born of ear-contact have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Ghāna samphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Feelings born of nose-contact have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Jivhā samphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, ettesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Feelings born of tongue-contact have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Kāya samphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Feelings born of body-contact have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Mano samphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Feelings born of mind-contact have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Rūpa saññā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Perception of forms has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Sadda saññā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Perception of sounds has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Gandha saññā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Perception of odors has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Rasa saññā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthasā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Perception of tastes has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Phoṭṭhabba saññā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Perception of tactile objects has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Dhamma saññā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Perception of mental phenomena has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Rūpa sañcetanā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Volition regarding forms has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Sadda sañcetanā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Volition regarding sounds has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Gandha sañcetanā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Volition regarding odors has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Rasa sañcetanā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Volition regarding tastes has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Phoṭṭhabba sañcetanā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Volition regarding tactile objects has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Dhamma sañcetanā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Volition regarding mental phenomena has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Rūpa taṇhā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Craving for forms has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Sadda taṇhā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Craving for sounds has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Gandha taṇhā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. /Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Craving for odors has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Rasa taṇhā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Craving for tastes has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Phoṭṭhabba taṇhā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Craving for tactile objects has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Dhamma taṇhā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. /Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Craving for mental phenomena has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Rūpa vitakko loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Thought of forms has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Sadda vitakko loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. /Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Thought of sounds has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Gandha vitakko loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Thought of odors has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Rasa vitakko loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Thought of tastes has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Phoṭṭhabba vitakko loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Thought of tactile objects has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Dhamma vitakko loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. /Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Thought of mental phenomena has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Rūpa vicāro loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Examination of forms has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Sadda vicāro loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Examination of sounds has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Gandha vicāro loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. /Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Examination of odors has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Rasa vicāro loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Examination of tastes has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Phoṭṭhabba vicāro loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Examination of tactile objects has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Dhamma vicāro loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. Ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Examination of mental phenomena has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it establishes when it establishes.

Idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave, dukkha samudayaṁ ariyasaccaṁ.

“Monks, this is called the noble truth of the origin of suffering.

4.5.3 Nirodhasacca Niddeso: The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering

Katamañca bhikkhave dukkha nirodhaṁ ariyasaccaṁ?

“And what, monks, is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering?

Yo tassā yeva taṇhāya asesavirāganirodho cāgo paṭinissaggo mutti anālayo.

It is the complete cessation of that very craving, giving it up, relinquishing it, liberating oneself from it, and detaching oneself from it.

Sā kho panesā bhikkhave taṇhā kattha pahīyamānā pahīyati: kattha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati?

“When this craving is abandoned, monks, where is it abandoned? When it ceases, where does it cease?

yaṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. /Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Whatever in the world has a pleasant and agreeable nature: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Kiñca loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ?

And what in the world has a pleasant and agreeable nature?

Cakkhuṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

“The eye has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Sotaṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

“The ear has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Ghānaṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

“The nose has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Jivhā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

“The tongue has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Kāyo loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

“The body has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Mano loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

“The mind has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Rūpā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Forms have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Saddā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Sounds have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Gandhā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Odors have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Rasā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Tastes have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Phoṭṭhabbā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Tactile objects have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Dhammā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Mental phenomena have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Cakkhu viññāṇaṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Eye-consciousness has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Sota viññāṇaṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Ear-consciousness has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Ghāna viññāṇaṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, /ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Nose-consciousness has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Jivhā viññāṇaṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Tongue-consciousness has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Kāya viññāṇaṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, /ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Body-consciousness has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Mano viññāṇaṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahiyamānā pahīyati, /ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Mind-consciousness has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Cakkhu samphasso loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Eye-contact has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Sota samphasso loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Ear-contact has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Ghāna samphasso loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Nose-contact has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Jivhā samphasso loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Tongue-contact has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Kāya samphasso loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Body-contact has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Mano samphasso loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Mind-contact has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Cakkhu samphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Feelings born of eye-contact have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Sota samphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Feelings born of ear-contact have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Ghāna samphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Feelings born of nose-contact have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Jivhā samphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Feelings born of tongue-contact have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Kāya samphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Feelings born of body-contact have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Mano samphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Feelings born of mind-contact have a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Rūpa saññā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Perception of forms has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Sadda saññā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Perception of sounds has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Gandha saññāloke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Perception of odors has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Rasa saññā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Perception of tastes has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Phoṭṭhabba saññā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Perception of tactile objects has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Dhamma saññā loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Perception of mental phenomena has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Rūpa sañcetanā loke piyarūpaṁ sārūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahiyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Volition regarding forms has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Sadda sañcetanā loke piyarūpaṁ sārūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahiyati. /Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Volition regarding sounds has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Gandha sañcetanā loke piyarūpaṁ sārūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahiyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Volition regarding odors has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Rasa sañcetanā loke piyarūpaṁ sārūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahiyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Volition regarding tastes has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Phoṭṭhabba sañcetanā loke piyarūpaṁ sārūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahiyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Volition regarding tactile objects has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Dhamma sañcetanā loke piyarūpaṁ sārūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahiyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Volition regarding mental phenomena has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Rūpa taṇhā loke piyarūpaṁ, sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Craving for forms has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Sadda taṇhā loke piyarūpaṁ, sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Craving for sounds has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Gandha taṇhā loke piyarūpaṁ, sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Craving for odors has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Rasa taṇhā loke piyarūpaṁ, sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Craving for tastes has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Phoṭṭhabba taṇhā loke piyarūpaṁ, sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Craving for tactile objects has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Dhamma taṇhā loke piyarūpaṁ, sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati. /Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Craving for mental phenomena has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Rūpa vitakko loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahiyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Thought of forms has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Sadda vitakko loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahiyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Thought of sounds has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Gandha vitakko loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahiyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Thought of odors has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Rasa vitakko loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahiyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Thought of tastes has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Phoṭṭhabba vitakko loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahiyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Thought of tactile objects has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Dhamma vitakko loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahiyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Thought of mental phenomena has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Rūpa vicāro loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahiyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Examination of forms has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Sadda vicāro loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahiyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Examination of sounds has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Gandha vicāro loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahiyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Examination of odors has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Rasa vicāro loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahiyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Examination of tastes has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Phoṭṭhabba vicāro loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahiyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Examination of tactile objects has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Dhamma vicāro loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ. Etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahiyati. Ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

Examination of mental phenomena has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving is abandoned when it is abandoned; it is here that it ceases when it ceases.

Idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave dukkha nirodhaṁ ariyasaccaṁ.

“Monks, this is called the noble truth of the cessation of suffering.

4.5.4 Maggasacca Niddeso: The Noble Truth of the Path to End of Suffering

Katamañca bhikkhave dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṁ? Ayameva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, seyyathīdaṁ, sammādiṭṭhi, sammā saṅkappo, sammā vācā, sammā kammanto, sammā ājīvo, sammā vāyāmo, sammā sati, sammā samādhi.

“And what, monks, is the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering? It is just this Noble Eightfold Path, that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration.

Katamā ca bhikkhave sammā diṭṭhi? Yaṁ kho bhikkhave dukkhe ñāṇaṁ, dukkha samudaye ñāṇaṁ, dukkha nirodhe ñāṇaṁ, dukkha nirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya ñāṇaṁ, ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave sammā diṭṭhi.

“And what, monks, is right view? Knowledge of suffering, knowledge of the origin of suffering, knowledge of the cessation of suffering, and knowledge of the way leading to the cessation of suffering. Monks, this is called right view.

Katamo ca bhikkhave sammā saṅkappo? Nekkhamma saṅkappo, avyāpāda saṅkappo, avihiṁsā saṅkappo. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave sammā saṅkappo.

“And what, monks, is right intention? Intention of renunciation, intention of non-ill will, and intention of non-cruelty. Monks, this is called right intention.

Katamā ca bhikkhave sammā vācā? Musāvādā veramaṇī, pisunāya vācāya veramaṇī, pharusāya vācāya veramaṇī, samphappalāpā veramaṇī. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave sammāvācā.

“And what, monks, is right speech? Abstaining from false speech, abstaining from divisive speech, abstaining from harsh speech, and abstaining from idle chatter. Monks, this is called right speech.

Katamo ca bhikkhave sammā kammanto? Pāṇātipātā veramaṇī, adinnādānā veramaṇī, kāmesumicchācārā veramaṇī. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave sammākammanto.

“And what, monks, is right action? Abstaining from killing beings, abstaining from stealing, and abstaining from sexual misconduct. Monks, this is called right action.

Katamo ca bhikkhave sammā ājīvo? Idha bhikkhave ariyasāvako micchā ājīvaṁ pahāya sammā ājīvena jīvikaṁ kappeti. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave sammā ājīvo.

“And what, monks, is right livelihood? Here a noble disciple, having abandoned wrong livelihood, earns his living by right livelihood. Monks, this is called right livelihood.

Katamo ca bhikkhave sammā vāyāmo? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu anuppannānaṁ pāpakānaṁ akusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ anuppādāya chandaṁ janeti, vāyamati, viriyaṁ ārabhati, cittaṁ paggaṇhāti, padahati.

“And what, monks, is right effort? Here a monk generates the will for non-arising of unarisen evil unwholesome states; he makes an effort, arouses energy, applies his mind, and strives.

Uppannānaṁ pāpakānaṁ akusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ pahānāya chandaṁ janeti, vāyamati, viriyaṁ ārabhati, cittaṁ paggaṇhāti, padahati.

He generates the will to abandon arisen evil unwholesome states; he makes an effort, arouses energy, applies his mind, and strives.

Anuppannānaṁ kusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ uppādāya chandaṁ janeti, vāyamati, viriyaṁ ārabhati, cittaṁ paggaṇhāti, padahati.

He generates the will for the arising of unarisen wholesome states; he makes an effort, arouses energy, applies his mind, and strives.

Uppannānaṁ kusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ ṭhitiyā asammosāya bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā chandaṁ janeti, vāyamati, viriyaṁ ārabhati, cittaṁ paggaṇhāti, padahati. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave sammā vāyāmo.

He generates the will to maintain arisen wholesome states, to prevent their decline, to increase, expand, and fulfill them by development; he makes an effort, arouses energy, applies his mind, and strives. Monks, this is called right effort.

Katamā ca bhikkhave sammā sati? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati, ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhā domanassaṁ.

“And what, monks, is right mindfulness? Here monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in body, dedicated, fully aware, and mindful, having put away greed and grief for the world.

Vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati, ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhā domanassaṁ.

He dwells contemplating feelings in feelings, dedicated, fully aware, and mindful, having put away greed and grief for the world.

Citte cittānupassī viharati, ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhā domanassaṁ.

He dwells contemplating mind in mind, dedicated, fully aware, and mindful, having put away greed and grief for the world.

Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhā domanassaṁ.

He dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena, dedicated, fully aware, and mindful, having put away greed and grief for the world.

Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave sammā sati.

Monks, this is called right mindfulness.

Katamo ca bhikkhave sammā samādhi? Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati.

“And what, monks, is right concentration? Here monks, secluded from sense pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a monk enters and dwells in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by thought and examination, and includes rapture and happiness born of seclusion.

Vitakk avicārānaṁ vūpasamā ajjhattaṁ sampasādanaṁ cetaso ekodibhāvaṁ avitakkaṁ avicāraṁ samādhijaṁ pītisukhaṁ dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati.

With the subsiding of thought and examination, he enters and dwells in the second jhāna, which has internal calmness and unification of mind, is free from thought and examination, and includes rapture and pleasure born of concentration.

Pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati sato ca sampajāno sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṁvedeti, yantaṁ ariyā ācikkanti upekkhako satimā sukhavihārīti, taṁ tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati.

With the fading away as well of rapture, he dwells in equanimity, mindful and clearly comprehending, and he experiences pleasure within the body; he enters and dwells in the third jhāna of which the noble ones declare, ‘He is equanimous, mindful, one who dwells with pleasure.’

Sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassa domanassānaṁ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṁ upekkhā sati pārisuddhiṁ catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave sammā samādhi.

With the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous passing away of joy and grief, he enters and dwells in the fourth jhāna, which is beyond pleasure and pain and includes the purification of mindfulness and equanimity. Monks, this is called right concentration.

Idaṁ vuccati bhikkave dukkha nirodhagāminī patipadā ariya saccaṁ.

“This, monks, is called the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering.

Iti ajjhattaṁ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati. Bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati. Ajjhatta bahiddhā vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati.

“In this way he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena within himself, he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena within another, and he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena both within himself and within another.

Samudaya dhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati. Vayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati. Samudaya vayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati.

“He dwells contemplating the arising of the phenomena, he dwells contemplating the passing away of the phenomena, and he dwells contemplating the arising and passing away of the phenomena.

Atthi dhammā’ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya patissati mattāya, anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati.

“Mindfulness, that there are phenomena is simply established in him to the extent necessary for higher knowledge and mindfulness. He dwells independent, and not clinging to anything in the world.

Evampi kho bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati catūsu ariya saccesu.

That is how monks, a monk dwells contemplating the phenomena in phenomena in terms of the Four Noble Truths.

(The section on contemplating phenomena in phenomena is finished)

Satipaṭṭhāna Bhāvanānisaṁso: The Results of the Establishing of Mindfulness

Yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya satta vassāni, tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Monks, if anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for seven years, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation, Nibbāna; or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave satta vassāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya cha vassāni, tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone seven years, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for six years, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation; Nibbāna, or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave cha vassāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya pañca vassāni, tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone six years, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for five years, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation; Nibbāna, or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave pañca vassāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya cattāri vassāni, tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone five years, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for four years, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation; Nibbāna, or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave cattāri vassāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya tīṇi vassāni, tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone four years, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for three years, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation; Nibbāna, or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave tīṇī vassāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya dve vassāni, tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone three years, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for two years, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation; Nibbāna, or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave dve vassāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya ekaṁ vassaṁ, tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone two years, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for one year, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation; Nibbāna, or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhatu bhikkhave ekaṁ vassaṁ. Yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya satta māsāni, tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone one year, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for seven months, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation; Nibbāna, or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave satta māsāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya cha māsāni. Tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone seven months, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for six months, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation; Nibbāna, or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave cha māsāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya pañca māsāni. Tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone six months, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for five months, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation; Nibbāna, or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave pañca māsāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya cattāri māsāni. Tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone five months, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for four months, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation; Nibbāna, or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave cattāri māsāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya tīṇi māsāni. Tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone four months, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for three months, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation; Nibbāna, or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave tīṇi māsāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya dve māsāni. Tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, /diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone three months, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for two months, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation; Nibbāna, or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhantu bhikkhave dve māsāni, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya māso tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone two months, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for one month, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation, Nibbāna; or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhatu bhikkhave māso, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya aḍḍhamāso, tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

“Let alone one month, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for half a month, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation; Nibbāna, or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Tiṭṭhatu bhikkhave aḍḍhamāso, yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṁ bhāveyya sattāhaṁ, tassa dvinnaṁ phalānaṁ aññataraṁ phalaṁ pāṭikaṅkhaṁ, diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā’ti.

“Let alone half a month, monks. If monks, anyone should develop these four establishments of mindfulness in such a way for seven days, one of two fruits could be expected for him: either final liberation; Nibbāna, or if there are any fetters remaining, non-returning.

Ekāyano ayaṁ bhikkhave maggo sattānaṁ visuddhiyā soka pariddavānaṁ samatikkamāya dukkha domanassānaṁ atthaṅgamāya ñāyassa adhigamāya nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya; yadidaṁ, cattāro satipaṭṭhānā’ti, iti yantaṁ vuttaṁ idametaṁ paṭicca vuttanti.

“So when it was said, “Monks, this is the one and only path for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the disappearance of pain and grief, for the attainment of the higher knowledge, and for the realization of Nibbāna,’ it was with reference to the Four Establishments of Mindfulness.”

Idamavoca bhagavā, attamanā te bhikkhu bhagavato bhāsitaṁ abhinandunti.

That is what the Blessed One said. The monks were elated and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

Mahā Satipatthāna Suttaṁ Nitthitaṁ

The Discourse on the Establishment of Mindfulness is finished